"Just live your life . Pedehal dengan kata-kata manusia . .

Sunday, June 28, 2009

Movie Review: Transformers

by Peter Sciretta(http://www.slashfilm.com/2007/07/01/movie-review-transformers/)


Transformers is a movie based not on a television show, comic book character, novel or cartoon, but instead a line of toys. Sure, Transformers has been there, and done that - but it all started as a toyline. It amazes me that Hollywood has to reach that far to find the next “sure thing.” But thankfully the concept is a good one. How can you go wrong with big alien robots fighting each other? Answer: You really can’t. Truth is, Transformers is the film I’ve been looking the most forward to in this summer of threequels. And it didn’t disappoint.

But you must enter into such a movie knowing that story will not take precedent. It’s probably the last thing on the list. Alien creatures have come to earth in search for a cube that could help create a new world for their near-extinct race. Sam Witwicky (Shia LaBeouf) is the grandson of an explorer who discovered Megatron frozen in the Arctic Ocean. It gets even more ridiculous. Before going into a comatose state Megatron used the last of his energy to engrave a map, showing the location of the Allspark cube, into the Captain’s glasses, and send a transmission to Cybertron. And Sam, aka usename Ladiesman, has put the glasses on eBay in hopes of raising some last minute funds for his first car. Still with me? And as Bernie Mac says, “You don’t choose your first car, your first car chooses you.” But to Sam’s surprise, the car that chose him is an Autobot in disguise named Bumblebee, who has been sent to protect him. And there is a government conspiracy, a group of college age kids who are trying to break a code, a group of US military survivors who have a photo of one of the alien creatures, and oh yeah, a bunch of kick ass action sequences where giant fucking robots kick each others asses.

You must enter into the film with the knowledge of this ridiculous world. Because if you’re looking for super realism, it’s better to look elsewhere (Pixar’s Ratatouille perhaps). I was shocked to learn that the budget for Transformers was somewhere around $150 million. In a day and age when a comedy film can cost over $200 million, and most of the other summer movies need to make over $1 billion to break even, it’s a relief to see a movie made so cheaply. And honestly, you can’t tell from the film. The Transformers look vivd and uber-cool. It doesn’t matter how many times you see a car transform into a big robot, it never gets old. The first transformation of Optimus Prime is EPIC. You’ll see what I mean. And there is just so much in this movie that hasn’t been shown in the movie trailers. There is more action than you could even believe. And sometimes it’s so nonstop that you might not be able to tell who is who or what exactly is going on. And yes, that might be a flaw, but I sat back and enjoyed every second of it.


Perfect MV

we meet again 4 the new topic
not about notes or questions..
Im bored 4 being 'skema' at all the time with posting notes and question in this blog so now i want to fresh my mind with listening to this song!.. this song is from secondhand serenade and the tittle is your call.. like dis song very2 much.. his voice is cool and dferent with other universal singers. His music video 4 dis song is perfect! like it^^


your call lyric

Saturday, June 27, 2009

List of University and College

Revision card ( Physic notes)

Form 4

1 Introduction to Physics

1.1 Physical Quantities
1.2 Error Analysis
1.3 Measurement
1.4 Scientific Investigation

2 Force and Motion

2.1 Linear Motion
2.2 Ticker Tape
2.3 Graph of Motion
2.4 Mass and Inertia
2.5 Momentum
2.6 Effects of a Force
2.7 Impulse and Impulsive Force
2.8 Safety Feature in Vehicles
2.9 Gravity
2.10 Forces in Equilibrium
2.11 Work and Energy
2.12 Power and Efficiency
2.13 Elasticity

3. Force and Pressure

3.1 Pressure
3.2 Liquid Pressure
3.3 Atmospheric Pressure
3.4 Application of Atmospheric Pressure
3.5 Gas Pressure
3.6 Pascal's Principle
3.7 Archimedes Principle
3.8 Bernoulli's Principle

4. Heat

4.1 Thermal Equilibrium
4.2 Thermometer
4.3 Specific Heat Capacity
4.4 Application of Specific Heat Capacity
4.5 Specific Latent Heat
4.6 The Gas Law

5. Light

5.1 Reflection
5.2 Refraction
5.3 Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection
5.4 Lenses
5.5 Optical Instrument

Form 5

1. Wave

1.1 Oscillation
1.2 Understanding Wave
1.3 Phenomena of Wave 1 - Reflection and Refraction
1.4 Phenomena of Wave 2 - Diffraction
1.5 Phenomena of Wave 3 - Interference
1.6 Sound Wave
1.7 Electromagnetic Wave
1.8 Electromagnetic Wave 2 - Light Wave

2. Electricity

2.1 Electric Charge and Current
2.2 Electric Field
2.3 Potential Difference, Ohm's Law and Resistance
2.4 Series Circuit and Parallel Circuit
2.5 Electromotive Force and Internal Resistance
2.6 Electrical Energy and Power
2.7 Efficiency Use of Electrical Appliances

3. Electromagnetism

3.1 Magnetism (Revision)
3.2 Electromagnet
3.3 Application of Electromagnet
3.4 Force on a Current-carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
3.5 Electromagnetic Induction
3.6 Alternating Current
3.7 Transformer
3.8 Sources of Energy and Generation of Electricity
3.9 Transmission of Electricity

Notes! Notes! Notes!++Chemistry++

SPM Physics Form 4
02 Structure of Atom I | Answer
02 Structure of Atom II | Answer
02 Structure of Atom III
02 Structure of Atom IV
05 Chemical Bond I
05 Chemical Bond II
05 Chemical Bond III
05 Chemical Bond IV
06 Electrolyte (Card)
07 Colour of Ion - Copper (Card)
07 Colour of Ion - Iron (Card)



Complete Formulae List (Highly recomended)
Chemical Reaction List - Form 4
Chemical Reaction List - Form 5

( iPaper is a document format built for the Web. Virtually any document format is convertable to iPaper, which is embeddable into any website or blog. You need Flash Player to open an iPaper file. The file size may be a little too big for dial up internet connection.)

Mind map for work,energy,power (physic)

eASY to understand with refer this!

Mathematics Is Fun

Algebra - Fun with Calendars

May 08


A fun mathematical puzzle to play with your friends.
(Or teachers, with your class.)

18 19
25 26
Take any calendar. Tell your friend to choose 4 days that form a square like the four to the right. Your friend should tell you only the sum of the four days, and you can tell her what the four days are.
How does the puzzle work? You know how people always want to see a use for algebra? Well this puzzle uses algebra. Here's what I mean.
Let's pretend that the 4 numbers that the person chose were the highlighted ones here - 18, 19, 25, and 26. She adds up the four numbers and tells you only that the sum is 88.
You make a couple of calculations and tell her the numbers. What calculations? Lets figure that out with algebra. Let's call the first number n. Then you know that the next number would be n + 1 and the next number would be n + 7 and the next number would be n + 8. We had our friend add up the four numbers, so let's add our four numbers:
n + n + 1 + n + 7 + n + 8
And since our friend got 88 when she added them, let's make our sum equal 88:
n + n + 1 + n + 7 + n + 8 = 88
Simplify our equation by adding like terms:
4n + 16 = 88
How would you solve this equation? Subtract 16 from both sides?
4n = 72
Divide both sides by 4?
n = 18
Subtract 16 and divide by 4. That's exactly how you solve the puzzle. When your friend tells you the sum, you subtract 16 then divide by 4. This gives you the first number n. (Then add 1 and 7 and 8 for the other numbers).

Alternate and easier method: Subtracting 16 mentally isn't so easy. Go back to that equation:
4n + 16 = 88
I think I see a better way. Factor 4 from the left side of the equation:
4(n + 4) = 88
Now, I could divide both sides by 4:
(n + 4) = 22
Subtract 4 from both sides.
n = 18
That's a lot easier to do mentally. Divide by four and then subtract 4.
Summary: So how does the puzzle work again? Your friend adds any 4 numbers that form a square on the calendar and tells you the sum. You divide by four and then subtract 4. That gives you the first number. You add 1, 7, and 8 to get the other numbers.
And algebra makes it all possible.

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Friday, June 26, 2009



Developing your writing skill in English: The beginning 01

From Fokus SPM magazine, 'Living English with Teech Airil', May 2008
by Airil Haimi Adnan @ Teech Airil

Bulan lepas ruangan ini membincangkan cara untuk menambah kemahiran membaca anda dalam Bahasa Inggeris. Bulan ini fokus kita adalah kemahiran menulis pula. Memang sukar untuk belajar menulis dalam suatu bahasa baru tetapi anda perlu belajar agar hasil tulisan anda nanti akan dapat difahami oleh orang lain dan juga mempunyai daya tarikan yang boleh membantu anda mendapat markah tinggi di dalam ujian serta peperiksaan…

Whenever I mention writing to my students, they will always moan and groan and pull a long face. Let’s face the fact – writing is not easy and not everyone can become a good writer in the English language.

Is this true? NOT NECESSARILY! Even though not all of us can become excellent writers like William Shakespeare or John Grisham, ALL of us can learn how to write using good grammar and with good creativity.

One of the biggest problem for Malaysian students in terms of writing in English is that they are only good in one area at a time. So for example, your English grammar is okay but your essay lacks imagination and so it fails to get the high grade that you want.

Some students have a bigger problem when they write in English because their grammar is very bad and they do not know what to write whenever they are asked to do so!

Let me share with you some basic tips on writing in the English language. First, you might like to use a combination of passive and active sentences in your composition. For example, you can write ‘When I arrived at the farm the animals were being slaughtered, so I watched the butchers for a while because I was curious.’

Second, when you start writing choose to write using single syllable words that are used to simplify sentences. They are therefore considered easy vocabulary in contrast with multi-syllable words. For example, write ‘We often visit the museum’ as opposed to ‘We often go and visit the museum’.

Third, when you start to become confident you might like to use certain well known phrases in your writing. The best place to start is in your English dictionary BUT do be careful, if you are not sure of the phrase or word, do not use it as you are bound to write something meaningless or even wrong.

I would also like to suggest you to start a Personal Vocabulary Book (PVB) when you start to learn to write in English.

To start one is easy, just get an empty notebook and then set yourself a daily or weekly quota – three new words per day or ten new English words per week, is a good start. What you need to do is to read lots of English stuff and whenever you find a new word you do not understand, jot it down in your PVB.

Next, find the meaning of the word in context (as used in the English material that you were reading), and finally use the new word to make a new sentence based on your own creativitiy.If you feel that you need help, try to approach your English teacher in school or your tuition tutor and ask her or him to check if your new sentences are correctly written.

You will notice that your vocabulary will slowly increase and you are now able to write more creatively than before. In time, your writing skill as a whole will improve as you continue reading new English materials and to develop your personal vocabulary.

The final point I want to share with you this month is the importance of writing in different genres. A genre basically means type of writing, for example short story, poem, magazine article, informal letter and more.

To become a GELL, you must practice writing in different modes and style. For example, you might want to train yourself to write better emails in English. At the same time, may be you want to try to write articles for your school magazine.

In addition, if you like English literature, why not practice writing some short poems that you can easily share with your friends in school or upload them to your personal website for the whole world to read?

Whatever you choose, just remember writing IS NOT boring and difficult. With the proper approach (and lots of practice) it is the best way for you to express yourself in the English language!

This is the original unedited version of the article that appeared in the magazine, please refer to the MAY edition of FOKUS SPM for the updated copy - Ed.

Calon SPM dihad ambil 10 subjek

Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin berkata, kerajaan telah memutuskan calon Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) mulai tahun depan tidak lagi boleh mengambil lebih daripada 10 mata pelajaran.

Menurut Timbalan Perdana Menteri, perbincangan mengenainya telah dibuat di peringkat Kementerian Pelajaran dan keputusan itu juga sekali gus membawa perubahan dalam sistem penggredan mata pelajaran.

‘‘Kita akan mengehadkan 10 subjek sahaja untuk peperiksaan SPM pada tahun 2010 dan kementerian perlu membuat beberapa perubahan dalam penggredannya,” ujarnya.

Beliau berkata demikian kepada pemberita selepas majlis peletakan batu asas Kompleks Pendidikan Bandar Enstek, Nilai dekat sini hari ini.

Turut hadir Menteri Kerja Raya, Datuk Shaziman Abu Mansor; Menteri Besar, Datuk Seri Mohamad Hasan dan Ketua Setiausaha Kementerian Pelajaran, Tan Sri Zulkurnain Awang.

Beliau yang juga Menteri Pelajaran memberitahu, berdasarkan keadaan semasa, jumlah pelajar yang mengambil lebih 10 subjek pada peperiksaan SPM tahun lalu cuma 48,000 berbanding 500,000 yang mendudukinya seluruh negara.

‘‘Cuma 10 peratus yang mengambil lebih 10 subjek. Kita percaya dengan perubahan ini, 90 peratus pelajar yang kekal dalam 10 subjek atau kurang akan memperlihatkan angka yang sama tahun ini.

‘‘Perkembangan ini sudah tentulah memberikan impak positif dalam kaedah pengajaran guru di sekolah kerana mereka boleh menumpukan khusus kepada 10 subjek berkenaan.

‘‘Selain itu ia juga mengurangkan kos kepada ibu bapa yang terpaksa menghantar anak mengikuti kelas tuisyen kerana pengajaran dalam subjek pilihan tidak dibuat secara konsisten di sekolah,” kata beliau.

Muhyiddin juga menjelaskan, ketika ini kekemasan pelaksanaan peperiksaan 10 subjek dalam SPM itu sedang diperincikan oleh pegawai di kementerian berkenaan.

‘‘Memang sistem penggredan akan berlaku perubahan dan kita akan melihat kemungkinan pelajar mendapat A+, A atau A- atau B+, B mahupun B- bertambah ramai.

‘‘Ini akan diperhalusi kerana ia juga akan melihat kaedah terbaik dalam pemberian biasiswa kepada pelajar yang cemerlang dalam subjek terbabit. Ia akan dilakukan dengan sebaik mungkin,” kata beliau.

Semalam Timbalan Menteri Pelajaran, Datuk Dr. Wee Ka Siong berkata, sekumpulan ahli akademik dan profesional telah memulakan kajian terhadap cadangan kerajaan untuk mengehadkan jumlah subjek yang boleh diambil pelajar dalam peperiksaan Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM).

Menurutnya, kajian itu yang dijalankan atas arahan Timbalan Perdana Menteri akan melibatkan semua aspek.

Antara aspek yang dikaji ialah perbandingan tahap kecemerlangan pelajar termasuk mengkaji apakah pelajar yang memperoleh 21A itu cemerlang, tetapi mereka yang skor A dalam semua sembilan mata pelajaran yang diambil tidak cemerlang.Dalam kajian yang dibuat itu juga, kementerian tersebut ingin mendapatkan kepastian tujuan sebenar pelajar berkenaan mengambil lebih daripada 10 subjek dan rasionalnya mengambil subjek bertindih dan skor A.

Beliau seterusnya mencadangkan dana asing ditubuhkan menerusi sumbangan wang oleh syarikat-syarikat mega kepunyaan bukan Melayu yang mendapat kontrak daripada projek-projek kerajaan.

Ketua Umum, Badan Bertindak Perpaduan Melayu (BBPM), Osman Abu Bakar pula menyokong pemberian biasiswa JPA berdasarkan meritokrasi dengan pembahagian 60 peratus kepada bumiputera dan 40 peratus kepada bukan bumiputera.

Menurutnya, rasional pengagihan dengan kadar itu ialah orang-orang Melayu masih ketinggalan dalam bidang pendidikan berikutan pencapaian ekonomi keluarga yang masih rendah.

Katanya, calon yang mempunyai keupayaan menyeluruh sebagai kriteria layak menerima biasiswa tidak perlu diwajibkan sebaliknya yang penting pelajar Melayu berpeluang melanjutkan pelajaran menerusi biasiswa.

Syed Anuar Syed Mohamad selaku Timbalan Presiden Gabungan Pelajar Melayu Semenanjung (GPMS) pula berpandangan, pemberian biasiswa cara meritokrasi adalah cara terbaik.

Bagaimanapun tegasnya, kuota biasiswa untuk bumiputera seperti yang diperuntukkan dalam Perkara 153 Perlembagaan Malaysia tidak perlu disentuh.

Dalam pada itu beliau bersetuju kriteria pemberian biasiswa berasaskan keupayaan menyeluruh pelajar kerana kini 10 peratus aktiviti kokurikulum juga jadi penentu pelajar memasuki institusi pengajian tinggi (IPT).

GPMS dalam perkara ini katanya selalu menasihati pelajar mengambil peluang tersebut untuk melayakkan mereka ke IPTA.

Aku di Mrsm :)

semalam 25/6/2009
nak thu aku g mana?.. aku g MRSM transkrian( penang)
wahh.. 1st masa masuk tue aku jd gerun jgk.. yeala masok skola dak2 pandai lea ktakan.. klo nk bandingkan dgn skola aku nie mmg jauh berbeza tp pea2 pon aku ttp syang skola aku sekarang nie n xbermaksud tuk kutuk skola aku skang..
hurm dulu masa dpt result upsr aku ada tringin gak msok mrsm.. result aku da ok tp knapa ek aku x isi borang unt msok mrsm n ambik ujian die skali.. hurm.. mmg xterpikir.. yg parent aku nie suroh aku msok skola agama.. aku pon ikot jeala.. ntah lea.. rsa mcm minat unt msok skola agama time tue mmg tiggi.. tp malangnya aku xdpt pon msok skola agama.. mybe aku bwt xelok masa ujian kmsukan smka..
agak2 aku sedih x?..
xrasa pea pon.. time tue aku mana ada perasaan.. mmg btol pon..org bwt p la pea pon kt aku.. aku just rilex jaa..
sambung cite yg aku g mrsm smlam 2.. seronok!..dpt jumpa c 'romeo".. tgok dri jauh jek xberani nk tgur wlopun kteorang knl satu sama lain.. exclly semalam aku tringin nk sapa dia n try ckp dgn dia tp aku pon xtau knapa la aku bley jd cam 'Batu'.. sllu jd cm tue bla jumpa dgn org yg aku admired.. bley tgok dri jauh jeala.. ckp xbley.. bencinya..
ini da masuk kli yg kedua aku jmpa dgn dia nie.. aku rsa aku da mula minat kt c romeo nie tp masih bley control lg r.. hurm mybe nasib kteorang mmg cm nie.. xda jodoh kot.. ++hexxx++
skang nie aku promise jika aku ngan die jumpa skali lg unt kli yg ktiga.. aku adalah org pertama yg akn sapa dia.. mana r tahu lps tue kteorang bley jd kwn rapat^^
ku gelarkn die sbagai romeo.. sbb mmg xthu nma die apa..

huh hampir lpa nk bgitau smlam aku n kekwan aku yg lain dgn 2 org cikgu p mrsm sbb dpt jemputan dri dorang sbb smlam ada karnival sains kot nma die.. ntah r.. ku pon da lpa.. best la jgk.. pt mkan free.. sdap lak 2.. mcm2 r ada smlam.. ada yg bwt perniagaan berdasarkan projek.. jual baju.. mcm2 r ada.. dorang ajar cm mna nk bwt t-shirt + design sendiri.. wahh bstnya.. aku mula terpkir aku pon nk bwt bisnes sndiri.. jual r kt blog aku nie.. hehe.. laku kea?.. mrsm mmg best.. cara dorang.. pkaian dorang.. cara dorang bersosial.. n semua yg aku jumpa smlam smuanya ok2.. xla sombong mcm skola lain tue.. berlagak gilee..
yg plg best la kn rsanya msa dkt group 'the teddies' kot nma band dorang.. ok lea vocalist die tue nyayi tp nmpak gaya mcm confident sgt.. sorang lg mamat nie slh sorang bdk the teddies nie bley tahan gak kesombongan die nie.. aku tnya dia bknya nk jawab pon.. tnjuk muka poyo+ siyes jek.. myampah!.. huh xpeala mybe time tue die bad mood kot.. nea r thu.. aku cuma nk luahkan jeala..

Wednesday, June 24, 2009

World capital!

World Capitals

Afghanistan Kabul, 2,206,300
Albania Tirana, 353,400
Algeria Algiers, 3,917,000 (metro. area), 1,742,800 (city proper)
Andorra Andorra la Vella, 23,000
Angola Luanda, 2,297,200
Antigua and Barbuda St. John's, 23,500
Argentina Buenos Aires, 13,349,000 (metro. area), 2,768,772 (city proper)
Armenia Yerevan, 1,462,700 (metro. area), 1,267,600 (city proper)
Australia Canberra, 327,700
Austria Vienna, 2,041,300 (metro area), 1,523,600 (city proper)
Azerbaijan Baku, 2,118,600 (metro area), 1,235,400 (city proper), a port on the Caspian Sea
Bahamas Nassau, 222,200
Bahrain Al-Manámah, 527,000 (metro area), 149,900 (city proper)
Bangladesh Dhaka, 12,560,000 (metro.area), 5,378,023 (city proper)
Barbados Bridgetown, 98,900
Belarus Mensk (Minsk), 1,769,500
Belgium Brussels, 1,750,600 (metro area), 981,200 (city proper)
Belize Belmopan, 8,700
Benin Porto-Novo (official), 231,600; Largest city and seat of government: Cotonou 734,600
Bhutan Thimphu (official), 60,200
Bolivia Sucre, 204,200; Administrative capital: La Paz, 1,576,100 (metro. area), 830,500 (city proper)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo, 581,500 (unofficial)
Botswana Gaborone, 195,000
Brazil Brasília, 2,160,100
Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan, 78,000
Bulgaria Sofia, 1,088,700
Burkina Faso Ouagadougou, 962,100
Burundi Bujumbura, 331,700
Cambodia Phnom Penh, 1,169,800
Cameroon Yaoundé, 1,395,200 (metro. area), 1,154,400 (city proper)
Canada Ottawa, Ontario, 1,142,700 (metro. area)
Cape Verde Praia, 99,400
Central African Republic Bangui, 810,000 (metro. area), 669,800 (city proper)
Chad N'Djamena, 609,600
Chile Santiago, 5,333,100 (metro. area), 4,372,800 (city proper)
China Beijing, 10,849,000 (metro. area), 8,689,000 (city proper)
Colombia Santafé de Bogotá, 7,594,000 (metro. area), 7,185,889 (city proper)
Comoros Moroni (on Grande Comoro), 60,200
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Kinshasa, 6,541,300
Congo, Republic of Brazzaville, 1,169,900
Costa Rica San José, 1,527,300 (metro. area), 337,200 (city proper)
Côte d'Ivoire Yamoussoukro (official), 185,600; Largest city and administrative center: Abidjan, 4,113,600 (metro. area), 3,427,500 (city proper)
Croatia Zagreb, 685,500
Cuba Havana, 2,686,000 (metro. area), 2,343,700 (city proper)
Cyprus Lefkosia (Nicosia) (in government-controlled area), 197,600
Czech Republic Prague, 1,378,700 (metro. area), 1,169,800 (city proper)
Denmark Copenhagen, 1,094,400
Djibouti Djibouti, 383,000
Dominica Roseau, 20,000
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo, 2,851,300 (metro. area), 2,252,400 (city proper)
East Timor Dili, 50,800
Ecuador Quito 1,780,700 (metro. area), 1,443,900 (city proper)
Egypt Cairo, 11,146,000 (metro. area), 7,629,866 (city proper)
El Salvador San Salvador, 1,791,700 (metro. area), 504,700 (city proper)
Equatorial Guinea Malabo, 92,900
Eritrea Asmara, 899,000 (metro. area), 400,000 (city proper)
Estonia Tallinn, 379,000
Ethiopia Addis Ababa, 2,716,200
Fiji Suva (on Viti Levu), 177,300
Finland Helsinki, 1,162,900 (metro. area), 582,600 (city proper)
France Paris, 9,854,000 (metro. area), 2,110,400 (city proper)
Gabon Libreville, 661,600
Gambia Banjul, 46,700
Georgia Tbilisi, 1,440,000 (metro. area), 1,240,200 (city proper)
Germany Berlin (capital since Oct. 3, 1990), 3,933,300 (metro. area), 3,274,500 (city proper)
Ghana Accra, 2,825,800 (metro. area), 1,661,400 (city proper)
Greece Athens, 3,247,000 (metro. area), 747,300 (city proper)
Grenada St. George's, 4,300
Guatemala Guatemala City, 2,655,900 (metro. area), 1,128,800 (city proper)
Guinea Conakry, 1,767,200
Guinea-Bissau Bissau, 296,900
Guyana Georgetown, 227,700
Haiti Port-au-Prince, 1,764,000 (metro. area), 1,119,000 (city proper)
Honduras Tegucigalpa, 1,436,000 (metro. area), 1,248,300 (city proper)
Hungary Budapest, 2,597,000 (metro. area), 1,769,500 (city proper)
Iceland Reykjavik, 184,200 (metro. area), 114,800 (city proper)
India New Delhi, 15,334,000 (metro. area), 9,817,439 (city proper)
Indonesia Jakarta, 13,194,000 (metro. area), 8,389,443 (city proper)
Iran Tehran, 7,796,257 (city proper)
Iraq Baghdad, 6,777,300 (metro. area), 5,772,000 (city proper)
Ireland Dublin, 1,018,500
Israel Jerusalem, 695,500 Note: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the U.S., like nearly all other countries, maintains its embassy in Tel Aviv.
Italy Rome, 3,550,900 (metro. area), 2,455,600 (city proper)
Jamaica Kingston, 937,700 (metro. area), 590,500 (city proper)
Japan Tokyo, 35,327,000 (metro. area), 8,483,050 (city proper)
Jordan Amman, 2,677,500 (metro. area), 1,293,200
Kazakhstan Astana, 288,200 (formerly Aqmola; capital since 1997)
Kenya Nairobi, 3,064,800 (metro. area), 2,411,900 (city proper)
Kiribati Tarawa, 26,600
Korea, North Pyongyang, 3,222,000 (metro. area), 2,767,900
Korea, South Seoul, 10,287,847 (city proper)
Kosovo Pristina, 400,000 (est.)
Kuwait Kuwait, 1,709,800 (metro. area), 32,600 (city proper)
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek (formerly Frunze), 824,900
Laos Vientiane, 194,200
Latvia Riga, 867,700 (metro. area), 706,200 (city proper)
Lebanon Beirut, 1,916,100 (metro. area), 1,171,000 (city proper)
Lesotho Maseru 173,700
Liberia Monrovia, 1,348,900 (metro. area), 550,200 (city proper)
Libya Tripoli, 2,357,800 (metro. area), 1,269,700 (city proper)
Liechtenstein Vaduz, 5,300
Lithuania Vilnius, 543,500
Luxembourg Luxembourg, 78,800
Macedonia Skopje, 587,300 (metro. area), 452,500 (city proper)
Madagascar Antananarivo, 1,390,800
Malawi Lilongwe, 499,200
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, 3,688,200 (metro. area), 1,403,400
Maldives Malé, 81,600
Mali Bamako, 1,323,200 (metro. area), 935,400
Malta Valletta, 194,200 (metro. area) 6,900 (city proper)
Marshall Islands Majuro, 20,500
Mauritania Nouakchott, 661,400
Mauritius Port Louis, 577,200 (metro. area), 143,800 (city proper)
Mexico Mexico City, 19,013,000 (metro. area), 8,591,309 (city proper)
Micronesia Palikir 11,600
Moldova Chisinau, 772,500 (metro. area), 709,900 (city proper)
Monaco Monaco, 1,400
Mongolia Ulaan Baatar, 804,200
Montenegro Podgorica (administrative capital), 117,875; Cetinje (capital city), 14,700
Morocco Rabat, 1,636,600
Mozambique Maputo, 1,691,000 (metro. area), 1,114,000 (city proper)
Myanmar Rangoon (Yangon), 4,344,100
Namibia Windhoek, 221,000. Summer capital: Swakopmund, 26,200
Nauru Yaren, 4,900
Nepal Kathmandu, 1,203,100 (metro. area), 729,000 (city proper)
Netherlands Amsterdam (official), 737,900; The Hague (administrative capital), 465,900
New Zealand Wellington, 342,500 (metro. area), 165,100 (city proper)
Nicaragua Managua, 1,390,500 (metro. area), 1,146,000 (city proper)
Niger Niamey, 748,600
Nigeria Abuja, 590,400 (metro. area), 165,700 (city proper)
Norway Oslo, 791,500
Oman Muscat, 797,000 (metro. area), 54,800 (city proper)
Pakistan Islamabad, 601,600
Palau Koror, 11,100
Palestinian State (proposed) Undetermined
Panama Panama City, 1,053,500 (metro. area), 437,200 (city proper)
Papua New Guinea Port Moresby, 324,900
Paraguay Asunción, 1,482,200 (metro. area), 525,100
Peru Lima, 8,180,000 (metro. area), 7,029,928 (city proper)
Philippines Manila, 10,677,000 (metro. area), 1,581,082 (city proper)
Poland Warsaw, 2,201,900 (metro. area), 1,607,600 (city proper)
Portugal Lisbon, 2,618,100 (metro. area), 559,400
Qatar Doha, 550,700 (metro. area), 318,500 (city proper)
Romania Bucharest, 2,210,800 (metro. area), 1,906,800 (city proper)
Russia Moscow, 10,672,000 (metro. area), 10,101,500 (city proper)
Rwanda Kigali, 298,100
St. Kitts and Nevis Basseterre (on St. Kitts), 11,500
St. Lucia Castries, 60,300
St. Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown, 17,600
Samoa Apia, 35,900
San Marino San Marino, 4,300
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé, 53,300
Saudi Arabia Riyadh, 3,724,100
Senegal Dakar, 2,476,400
Serbia Belgrade, 1,717,800 (metro. area), 1,285,200 (city proper)
Seychelles Victoria, 23,000
Sierra Leone Freetown, 1,051,000
Singapore Singapore, 3,438,600
Slovakia Bratislava, 428,800
Slovenia Ljubljana, 258,000
Solomon Islands Honiara (on Guadalcanal), 54,600
Somalia Mogadishu, 1,208,800
South Africa Pretoria, 1,541,300 (metro. area), 1,249,700 (city proper); Legislative capital and largest city: Cape Town, 3,140,600 (metro. area), 2,733,000 (city proper). Judicial capital: Bloemfontein, 378,000. No decision has been made to relocate the seat of government. South Africa is demarcated into nine provinces, consisting of the Gauteng, Northern Province, Mpumalanga, North West, KwaZulu/Natal, Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Northern Cape, and Free State. Each province has its own capital
Spain Madrid, 5,130,000 (metro. area), 3,169,400 (city proper)
Sri Lanka Colombo, 2,436,000 (metro. area), 656,100 (city proper). Legislative and judicial capital: Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, 118,300
Sudan Khartoum, 5,717,300 (metro. area), 1,397,900 (city proper)
Suriname Paramaribo, 217,300
Swaziland Mbabane, 69,000; Royal and legislative capital: Lobamba, circa 5,000
Sweden Stockholm, 1,622,300 (metro. area), 1,251,900 (city proper)
Switzerland Bern, 122,700
Syria Damascus, 2,381,800 (metro. area), 1,861,900
Taiwan Taipei, 7,871,900 (metro. area), 2,722,600 (city proper)
Tajikistan Dushanbe, 817,100 (metro. area), 590,300 (city proper)
Tanzania Dodoma, 164,500. Largest city (2003 est.): Dar es Salaam, 2,489,800
Thailand Bangkok, 6,320,174 (city proper)
Togo Lomé, 749,700 (metro. area), 676,400 (city proper)
Tonga Nuku'alofa, 24,500
Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain, 263,800 (metro. area), 45,300 (city proper)
Tunisia Tunis, 1,660,300 (metro. area), 699,700 (city proper)
Turkey Ankara, 3,582,000 (metro. area), 3,456,100 (city proper)
Turkmenistan Ashgabat, 727,700
Tuvalu Funafuti, 5,300
Uganda Kampala, 1,461,600 (metro. area), 1,244,000 (city proper)
Ukraine Kyiv (Kiev), 3,296,100 (metro. area), 2,588,400 (city proper)
United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi, 539,800
United Kingdom London, 7,615,000 (metro. area), 7,429,200 (city proper)
United States Washington, DC, 570,898
Uruguay Montevideo, 1,745,100 (metro. area), 1,347,600 (city proper)
Uzbekistan Tashkent, 3,457,500 (metro. area), 2,155,400 (city proper)
Vanuatu Port Vila, 35,300
Venezuela Caracas, 3,517,300 (metro. area), 1,741,400 (city proper)
Vietnam Hanoi, 2,543,700 (metro. area), 1,396,500 (city proper)
Western Sahara (proposed state) El Aaiun 198,200
Yemen Sanaá, 1,778,900
Zambia Lusaka, 1,773,300 (metro. area), 1,265,000 (city proper)
Zimbabwe Harare, 2,331,400 (metro. area), 1,919,700 (city proper)


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